Phase I and II Environmental Site Assessments

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Phase I Environmental Site Assessment

In addition to following current ASTM Standard Designation E1527 - 13 "Standard Practice for Environmental Site Assessments: Phase I Environmental Site Assessment Process", Jade's inspectors are trained to conduct thorough visual inspections for evidence of existing or the past presence of chemical and/or petroleum storage facilities. All Phase I ESAs are conducted under the auspices of a Licensed Engineer with 25+ years of experience conducting Phase I ESAs. At minimum our Phase I report scope of work includes :

Site Visit

One of the most important aspects o the Assessment, Jades inspectors and trained to conduct thorough Inspections of all areas of the Asset including detailed inspections of the areas within 10' of all on site structures for evidence of petroleum bulk storage. Exterior inspections include searches for depressions where backfill has settled after a tank excavation was backfilled or asphalt or concrete patches where surfaces were repaired after a tank pull. Interior basement walls are thoroughly inspected for possible penetrations from tanks buried outside the building.
All on-site petroleum and hazardous materials identified are photo-documented and added to the site map required for each assessment. Finally, the site visit includes an inspection of all surrounding properties which a detailed inspection o those properties topographically up gradient and possible sources of groundwater contamination and soil vapor intrusion that could negatively air quality inside on-site structures.

Historical Research

To add to the historical information obtained from the site contact, tenants that have been on-site for several years and/or even neighbors that have lived in the area for a long time, Jade will review the following sources of information to ascertain past uses of the Property back to at least 1940.
Building and Planning Files - although not required by ASTM, Jade inspectors are required to access all building files via FOIA if necessary due to the wealth of historical information provided in these files.
Title Information - Again although not required by ASTM, Jades inspectors are required to conduct title searches on all Property's back to 1940 or the extent feasible due to the wealth of info that can found in these records.
Fire Marshal Files - Many Fire Marshals offices collect data regarding the types and quantities of chemicals and petroleum's a facility maintains so that such information can be reviewed and understood in the event of a fire.
Historical Aerial Photographs
Street Directories
Topographical Maps
Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps

Geology and Hydrogeology

The following site characteristics will be collected from readily available sources such as at the county Soil Conservation Service Office in order to provide a better understanding of how readily contaminants could migrate onto or off site should they reach the aquifer.
Soil Type
Geological Setting
Groundwater Depth

Regulatory Research

Fire Marshal Office Records - for records of chemical and/or petroleum storage and use.
State Environmental Agencies - including databases of sites within distances of the site as specified by ASTM of site and facilities listed due to their use and storage of regulated materials including petroleum and chemicals as well as uncontrolled releases of these materials including sites currently under remediation as a result of a past spill say from a leaking buried tank.
Federal Environmental Agencies - Similarly to the state databases but on the federal level include various databases of sites that use and/or store larger quantities of select petroleums and chemicals

Interviews and Document Review

Jade considers interviews and review of older reports provided by property ownership one of the most important aspects of the Phase I process. As such, each and every inspection includes a Pre-Survey Questionnaire which is sent to the Site Contact/Owner for completion prior to our visiting the site, so that an understanding of current and past uses of the property with respect to chemical and petroleum use is known before visiting the Site. Interviews are targeted towards :

Property Tenants and Owners - Targeted to complete our Pre survey Questionnaire
Property Neighbors
Local Regulators/Town Offices
Review Provided Reports

Phase II Environmental Site Assessment

Soil and groundwater Sampling and Analysis

Phase I ESAs typically dont include any testing (except possibly some limited testing or lead paint, asbestos, mold and/or radon levels). However, in the event a Phase I does identify an "Recognized Environmental Condition" (a.k.a. REC), a Phase II ESA may be recommended. The Phase II ESA Scope of Work will specify how and where samples will be collected, screened in the field for evidence of contamination and where samples will be collected from that will be sent to a licensed chemistry lab for analysis for predetermined analytical methods. Because each state has its own protocols, our Phase IIs are designed primarily based on state standards including how soil and groundwater samples are collected, what analysis they are subjected to and the criteria they must meet. Because not all states provide the specifications necessary to design a complete Phase II investigation, Jade will reference other specifications such as ASTM Standard E-1903 which provides a general description of how a Phase II should be conducted and the data collected reported. However, because this standard is so general, Jade will fall back on additional ASTM standards to insure all work is conducted in accordance with generally accepted protocols. A few of the many ASTM references available for guidance when state guidance does not exist, include but again are not limited to :

D 6724 Standard Guide for Installation of Direct Push Groundwater Monitoring Wells
D 6001 Standard Guide for Direct-Push Groundwater Sampling for Environmental Site Characterization
D 6282 - Standard Guide for Direct Push Soil Sampling for Environmental Site Characterizations
D 1452 - Practice or Soil Investigation and Sampling for Soil Augering
D 2488 - Practice for Description and Identification of Soils
D 4448 - Guide or Sampling Grounding from Monitoring Wells
D 4700 - Guide for Soil Sampling from the Vadoze Zone

Jade being a design build company owns a large environmental sampling rig called an AMS Powerprobe 9600 Pro. Our drill rig is fitted with not only a hammer or direct push soil sampling but a 5,000ft-# auger head for the installation of "spec wells" up to 4" in diameter as is typically used in the remedial process.

Soil Gas Surveys

In addition to following state and ASTM guidance for completing soil and groundwater sampling for chemical composition, and comparison to applicable state Standards, Criteria and Guidance (SCGs), Jade has been conducting more and more soil gas sampling intended to assess the potential for contamination beneath a building to degrade the indoor of an occupied building. In addition to methodology provided by the State of New York Department of Health which appears to have taking the lead on how to properly collect and analyze sub-slab air for regulated volatiles, Jade resorts to recently issued ASTM Designation D7758 - 17 "Standard Practice for Passive Soil Gas Sampling in the Vadose Zone for Source Identification, Spatial Variability Assessment, Monitoring, and Vapor Intrusion Evaluations" for additional guidance on how best to collect soil gas and analyze it for a broad range of volatile organics. The results of the analysis are used to assess whether soil vapor extraction is necessary to protect building occupants from inhaling harmful gases. Depending on site improvements, soil gas analysis may be the only available method of ascertaining the "source" or "heart" of a plume because of its limited amount of intrusion, relative to mobilization of typical drilling apparatus.

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